Price List of Solar products in India

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Solar Water Heaters

01 Solar Water Heater(Evacuated Tube Collector)

Capacity : 125 LPDTemp. : 70 – 85ºC

Warranty : 7 Years

With Electric Back-up for rainy season 450$.

02 Solar Water Heater(Evacuated Tube Collector)

Capacity : 250 LPDTemp. : 70 – 85ºC

Warranty : 7 Years

With Electric Back-up for rainy season 705$

03 Solar Water Heater(Evacuated Tube Collector)

Capacity : 1000 LPD & AboveTemp. : 70 – 85ºC

Warranty : 7 Years

With Electric Back-up for rainy season 3.3$ / Ltr.

04 Solar Water Heater(Flat Plate Collector)

Capacity : 125 LPDTemp. : 60 - 70ºC

Warranty : 5 Years

With Electric Back-up for rainy season 500$

05 Solar Water Heater(Flat Plate Collector)

Capacity : 250 LPDTemp. : 60 - 70ºC

Warranty : 5 Years

With Electric Back-up for rainy season 760$

06 Solar Water Heater(Flat Plate Collector)

Capacity : 1000 LPD & AboveTemp. : 60 - 70ºC

Warranty : 5 Years

With Electric Back-up for rainy season 3.6$ / Ltr.

Solar Lanterns

01 Solar Lantern(A1 Quality)

Module : 10 wattLamp : 7 watt CFL

Back-up Hour : 4-5 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Years

With 12VDC output for DC Fan or Mobile Charging 90$

02 Solar Lantern(B1 Quality)

Module : 10 wattLamp : 7 watt CFL

Back-up Hour : 4 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Years 81$

03 Solar Lantern(A1 Quality)

Module : 8 wattLamp : 5 watt CFL

Back-up Hour : 4 – 5 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Years 77$

04 Solar Lantern(B1 Quality)

Module : 5 wattLamp : 5 watt CFL

Back-up Hour : 4 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Years 70$

05 Solar Lantern(A1 Quality)

Module : 5 wattLamp : 3 watt CFL

Back-up Hour : 4-5 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Years 67$

06 Solar Lantern(B1 Quality)

Module : 3 wattLamp : 3 watt CFL

Back-up Hour : 4 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Years 62$

07 Solar Lantern (L.E.D. Type)

Module : 3 WattBattery : 4.5 Ah

Back-up Hours : 7-8 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Years 51$

08 Solar Emergency Light(Wall Mounting)

Module : 5 WattLamp : 5 Watt CFL

Back-up Hrs. : 4-5 Hrs./day

Warranty : 2 Year 58$

Solar Fan

01 Solar Wall Mounting Fan

Module : 10Watt

Back-up Hrs. : 8 Hrs./day 95$

02 Solar Ceiling Fan

Size : 48”Module : 20 Watts

Back-up Hrs. : 8 Hrs./day 180$

Solar Home Lighting System

01 Solar Home Lighting System (L.E.D. Type)

Module : 20 Watt

No. of. Lamps : 4 Nos.

Back-up Hrs. : 14 – 16 Hrs. /day 330$

02 Solar Home Lighting System

Module : 40 Watt

No. of. Lamps : 4 Nos. x 5watt

Back-up Hrs. : 8-10 Hrs. /day 490$

Solar Street Lights

01 Solar Street Light

Module : 50 Watt

Lamp : 36 Watt Energy saverBattery 120 Ah.

Along with Pole & Other Accessories Dusk to Dawn Operation (Automatic Mode) 690$

02 Solar Street Light

Module : 100 Watt

Lamp : 36watt x 2 Nos. Energy saverBattery 240 Ah.

Along with Pole & Other Accessories Dusk to Dawn Operation (Automatic Mode) 1630$

03 Solar Street Light(L.E.D. Type)

Module : 20 Watt

Lamp : LED Type

Battery : 60 Ah

Along with Pole & Other Accessories Dusk to Dawn Operation (Automatic Mode) 390$

04 Solar Street Light(ESL Series)

Module : 200 Watt

Lamp : Energy Saver 93 Watt(Equal to 250W HPSV)

Battery : 180Ah

Along with Pole & Other Accessories Dusk to Dawn Operation (Automatic Mode) 2120$

Note: Prices are approximate. Shipping charges and delivery charges would be additional.

Solar Cooker: A solution to Energy Crisis and Global Warming.

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While the prices of cooking fuel is soaring, our solar coking system can be a complete solution to this problem. It requires solar energy that is free of cost and it prepares better quality food retaining all the healthy nutrients. This is an Eco-friendly device offering efficient and effective cooking measures. Biggest advantage with our cooking system is safety assurance. The black painted interior is supported with quality glass cover and they collectively absorb the maximum possible heat and consume in the process of cooking.

Box-type solar cooker consists of an insulated box, metallic cooking tray sat inside the box, double glass lid on the cooking tray, and a reflecting mirror fitted on the underside of the lid of the box. The cooking tray is insulated on the sides and bottom. The incoming solar radiation falls onto the double glass lid and passes through it to strike the blackened cooking pots and the cooking tray. The heat is absorbed by the blackened surface and gets transferred to the food inside the pots to facilitate cooking. The mirror reflector is set in such a way to reflect the solar radiation falling on it to the cooker box. Up to four black painted vessels are placed inside the box. The cooker takes 1½ to 2 hours to cook items such as rice, lentils and vegetables. The cooker may also be used to prepare simple cakes, roast cashew nuts, dry grapes, etc. It is an ideal device for domestic cooking during most of the year, except for the monsoon season and cloudy days. It, however cannot be used for frying or chapatti making.


There is an Indian Standard (IS 13420: 2000) available for box-type solar cookers which gives the specifications and also the performance parameters of these solar cookers. Advantages
Solar Cooking involves no recurring expenses on fuel as the solar energy is absolutely free.
Cost of the solar cooker gets recovered easily through savings on conventional fuel in few years.

Regular use of a box type solar cooker may save 3-4 LPG cylinders per year.

It saves time, as the cook need not be present during cooking in a solar cooker.

There is no fear of scorching the food.

It provides better and more nutritious food due to slow cooking.

It is durable and simple to operate.

It does not pollute the environment and conserves conventional energy.

Solar Panels: Models and Prices

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Highly sufficient and stable polycrystalline solar panel

Different power output available, range from 5 Watt to 100 Watt

Comes with junction box and by pass diode

Charge 6V and 12V batteries of all type.

Can be used as power source for power stations, or battery charger for vehicle, boat, electric fence, pump.

Multiple pieces can be connected to acquire higher power


Anodized aluminum alloy frame

Low iron high transparency temper glass cover

Solar cell embedded in EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate)

Tedlar foil backing

Solar lamp/Lantern: Price in Mumbai

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Salient features:

Light weight
Omni directional light
Rugged & compact, housing designed for good aesthetic appeal
Charging option either by solar supplied as standard or ac mains by using optional Solarmite – Mains charger
Fuse holder integral with switch and socket unit, provided externally
Polarised charging socket to prevent reverse connection
Rugged clear transparent plastic dome for lamp
Option of 5W / 7W CFLs available to choose based on illumination and backup required
SOLAR MODULE TBP1210 / TBP1212 can be used OR with mains charger - SOLAR MITE 12 V,1A to charge the battery

Price of a Solar lamp is around Rs.2100 in Mumbai.

It is also one of the products sold by RMP Marketing Company. However, they sell it at a price of Rs.6000 approx. and also provide you Siyarams suitings and a chain-selling or MLM marketing business along with it.

Holothurin A: Steroid Glycoside in Sea Cucumbers

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Holothurin A is a toxin of the cuvierian tubules of Sea Cucumbers. It is a steroid Glycoside. Sea Cucumbers belongs to the Class Echinodermata.

Thornasteroid: Steroid Glycoside in Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata)

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Thornasteroid occurs in acanthaster planci, a starfish living in tropical coral reefs, which belongs to the Class Echinodermata. It is a steroid glycoside.

Structure/Chemical structure of Aspertoxin

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Structure/Chemical structure of Sterigmatocystin

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Structure of Aflatoxins: The most Dangerous/Potent carcinogens

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Aflatoxins belongs to the most potent carcinogens ever known. They occur in some Aspergillus species, which often contaminate the food of humans and livestock.

Indole derivatives of Toads

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Aeroponic system in Hydroponics

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High-tech type of hydroponic gardening.

Growing medium is primarily air.

The roots hang in the air and are misted with nutrient solution.

Needs a short cycle timer that runs the pump for a few seconds every couple of minutes.

Drip system of Hydroponics

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Most widely used type of hydroponic system in the world. A timer controls a submersed pump.

The timer turns the pump on and nutrient solution is dripped onto thebase of each plant by a small drip line.

Recovery Drip System: excess nutrient solution that runs off iscollected back in the reservoir for re-use.

The Non-Recovery System does not collect the run off.

A recovery system:· uses nutrient solution a bit more efficiently and allows for the use of a more inexpensive timer.

The non-recovery system:· needs to have a more precise time· Watering cycles can be adjusted to insure that the plantsget enough nutrient solution and the runoff is kept to a minimum. Requires less maintenance.

Biomass to Ethanol conversion

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List of all Insect Pheromones

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epoxides Epoxide mixture
2R-7-2OH (2R)-Heptan-2-ol
2R-Z4-7-2OH (2R)-(Z)-4-Hepten-2-ol
2S-7-2OH (2S)-Heptan-2-ol
2S-Z4-7-2OH (2S)-(Z)-4-Hepten-2-ol
Z4-7-2Kt (Z)-4-Hepten-2-one

1-methylethyl octanoate 1-methylethyl octanoate
2R-pentyl octanoate (2R)-Pentyl octanoate

2R-pentyl nonanoate (2R)-Pentyl nonanoate
2R-Z6-9-2OH (2R)-(Z)-6-Nonen-2-ol
2S-Z6-9-2OH (2S)-(Z)-6-Nonen-2-ol
9-2Kt Nonan-2-one
R-E6,8-9-2OH (R)-(E)-6,8-Nonadien-2-ol
R-Z6,8-9-2OH (R)-(Z)-6,8-Nonadien-2-ol
S-E6,8-9-2OH (S)-(E)-6,8-Nonadien-2-ol
S-Z6,8-9-2OH (S)-(Z)-6,8-Nonadien-2-ol
Z6-9-2Kt (Z)-6-Nonen-2-one

10Ac Decyl acetate
10OH Decan-1-ol
2-butyl decanoate 2-Butyl decanoate
2-hexyl decanoate 2-Hexyl decanoate
2R-hexyl decanoate (2R)-Hexyl decanoate
2R-pentyl decanoate (2R)-Pentyl decanoate
2S-methylbutyl E7,9-decadienoate (2S)-methylbutyl-(E)-7,9-decadienoate
E2-hexenyl E7,9-decadienoate (E)-2-hexenyl-(E)-7,9-decadienoate
E3E5-10Ac (E,E)-3,5-Decadienyl acetate
E4-10Ac (E)-4-Decenyl acetate
E5-10Ac (E)-5-Decenyl acetate
E5-10OH (E)-5-Decen-1-ol
E7-10Ac (E)-7-Decenyl acetate
isobutyl E7,9-decadienoate isobutyl-(E)-7,9-decadienoate
methyl E7,9-decadienoate methyl-(E)-7,9-decadienoate
Z3-10Ac (Z)-3-Decenyl acetate
Z3E5-10Ac (Z,E)-3,5-Decadienyl acetate
Z4-10Ac (Z)-4-Decenyl acetate
Z5-10Ac (Z)-5-Decenyl acetate
Z5-10Al (Z)-5-Decenal
Z5-10isovalerate (Z)-5-Decenyl 3-methylbutanoate
Z5-10OH (Z)-5-Decen-1-ol
Z7,9-10Ac (Z)-7,9-Decadienyl acetate
Z7-10Ac (Z)-7-Decenyl acetate

Δ-11Ac Undecenyl acetate
Δ-11OH Undecen-1-ol
10-11Al 10-Undecenal
11Ac Undecyl acetate
11Cl-E8E10-11OH 11-Chloro-(E,E)-8,10-undecadien-1-ol
11OH Undecan-1-ol
E9-11Ac (E)-9-Undecenyl acetate
Z7-11Ac (Z)-7-Undecenyl acetate
Z8-11Ac (Z)-8-Undecenyl acetate
Z9-11Ac (Z)-9-Undecenyl acetate

Δ-12Ac Dodecenyl acetate
Δ-12OH Dodecen-1-ol
Δ9,11-12Ac 9,11-Dodecadienyl acetate
10,11-difluoro-E8E10-12OH 10,11-Difluoro-(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol
10me-12Ac 10-Methyldodecyl acetate
10Rme-12Ac (R)-10-Methyldodecyl acetate
10Sme-12Ac (S)-10-Methyldodecyl acetate
11,11,12,12,12-pentafluoro-Z9-12Ac 11,11,11,12,12-Pentafluoro-(Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate
11,11-difluoro-Z9-12Ac 11,11-Difluoro-(Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate
11-12Ac 11-Dodecenyl acetate 11-12OH 11-Dodecen-1-ol
12Ac Dodecyl acetate
12Al Dodecanal 12OH Dodecan-1-ol
2-butyl dodecanoate 2-Butyl dodecanoate
2R-pentyl dodecanoate (2R)-Pentyl dodecanoate
7,7-difluoro-Z8-12Ac 7,7-Difluoro-(Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate
8,9,10,11-tetrafluoro-E8E10-12OH 8,9,10,11-Tetrafluoro-(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol
8,9-difluoro-E8E10-12OH 8,9-Difluoro-(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol

12Ac Dodecadienyl acetate
E10-12Ac (E)-10-Dodecenyl acetate E10-12OH (E)-10-Dodecen-1-ol
E3-12Ac (E)-3-Dodecenyl acetate E3Z5-12Ac (E,Z)-3,5-Dodecadienyl acetate
E3Z5-12OH (E,Z)-3,5-Dodecadien-1-ol
E4-12Ac (E)-4-Dodecenyl acetate
E4E10-12Ac (E,E)-4,10-Dodecadienyl acetate
E5-12Ac (E)-5-Dodecenyl acetate
E5E7-12OH (E,E)-5,7-Dodecadien-1-ol
E5Z7-12Ac (E,Z)-5,7-Dodecadienyl acetate
E5Z7-12Al (E,Z)-5,7-Dodecadienal
E5Z7-12OH (E,Z)-5,7-Dodecadien-1-ol
E7-12Ac (E)-7-Dodecenyl acetate
E7-12OH (E)-7-Dodecen-1-ol
E7E9-12Ac (E,E)-7,9-Dodecadienyl acetate
E7Z9-12Ac (E,Z)-7,9-Dodecadienyl acetate
E7Z9-12Al (E,Z)-7,9-Dodecadienal
E7Z9-12OH (E,Z)-7,9-Dodecadien-1-ol
E8-12Ac (E)-8-Dodecenyl acetate
E8-12OH (E)-8-Dodecen-1-ol
E8E10-12Ac (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadienyl acetate, Codlemone acetate
E8E10-12Al (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadienal
E8E10-12OH (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol, Codlemone
E8Z10-12Ac (E,Z)-8,10-Dodecadienyl acetate
E8Z10-12Al (E,Z)-8,10-Dodecadienal
E8Z10-12OH (E,Z)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol
E9,11-12Ac (E)-9,11-Dodecadienyl acetate
E9,11-12Al (E)-9,11-Dodecadienal
E9,11-12OH (E)-9,11-Dodecadien-1-ol
E9-12Ac (E)-9-Dodecenyl acetate
E9-12Al (E)-9-Dodecenal
E9-12OH (E)-9-Dodecen-1-ol
Y7Z9-12Ac (Z)-9-Dodecen-7-yn-1-ol acetate
Z10-12Ac (Z)-10-Dodecenyl acetate
Z3-12Ac (Z)-3-Dodecenyl acetate
Z3E5-12Ac (Z,E)-3,5-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z3Z5-12Ac (Z,Z)-3,5-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z5-12Ac (Z)-5-Dodecenyl acetate
Z5-12Al (Z)-5-Dodecenal
Z5-12OH (Z)-5-Dodecen-1-ol
Z5-dodecenyl Z5-dodecenoate (Z)-5-Dodecenyl (Z)-5-dodecenoate
Z5E7-12Ac (Z,E)-5,7-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z5E7-12Al (Z,E)-5,7-Dodecadienal
Z5E7-12OH (Z,E)-5,7-Dodecadien-1-ol
Z5E7-12propionate (Z,E)-5,7-Dodecadienyl propionate
Z5Z7-12Al (Z,Z)-5,7-Dodecadienal
Z7-12Ac (Z)-7-Dodecenyl acetate
Z7-12Al (Z)-7-Dodecenal
Z7-12Butyrate (Z)-7-Dodecenyl butyrate
Z7-12Formate (Z)-7-Dodecenyl formate
Z7-12OH (Z)-7-Dodecen-1-ol
Z7-12Propionate (Z)-7-Dodecenyl propionate
Z7E9,11-12formate (Z,E)-7,9,11-Dodecatrienyl formate
Z7E9-12Ac (Z,E)-7,9-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z7E9-12OH (Z,E)-7,9-Dodecadien-1-ol
Z7Z9-12Ac (Z,Z)-7,9-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z7Z9-12OH (Z,Z)-7,9-Dodecadien-1-ol
Z8-12Ac (Z)-8-Dodecenyl acetate
Z8-12OH (Z)-8-Dodecen-1-ol
Z8E10-12Ac (Z,E)-8,10-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z8E10-12Al (Z,E)-8,10-Dodecadienal
Z8E10-12OH (Z,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol
Z8Z10-12Ac (Z,Z)-8,10-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z8Z10-12OH (Z,Z)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol
Z9,11-12Ac (Z)-9,11-Dodecadienyl acetate
Z9,11-12Al (Z)-9,11-Dodecadienal
Z9,11-12OH (Z)-9,11-Dodecadien-1-ol
Z9-12Ac (Z)-9-Dodecenyl acetate
Z9-12Al (Z)-9-Dodecenal
Z9-12OH (Z)-9-Dodecen-1-ol

Δ-13Ac Tridecenyl acetate
11meZ9,12-13Ac 11-Methyl-(Z)-9,12-tridecadienyl acetate
13Ac Tridecyl acetate
13OH Tridecan-1-ol
E11-13Ac (E)-11-Tridecenyl acetate
E3-13Ac (E)-3-Tridecenyl acetate
E4-13Ac (E)-4-Tridecenyl acetate
E4Z7-13Ac (E,Z)-4,7-Tridecadienyl acetate
E4Z7Z10-13Ac (E,Z,Z)-4,7,10-Tridecatrienyl acetate
E6-13Ac (E)-6-Tridecenyl acetate
E8-13Ac (E)-8-Tridecenyl acetate
E9-13Ac (E)-9-Tridecenyl acetate
Z10-13Ac (Z)-10-Tridecenyl acetate
Z11-13Ac (Z)-11-Tridecenyl acetate
Z4-13Ac (Z)-4-Tridecenyl acetate
Z8-13Ac (Z)-8-Tridecenyl acetate
Z9-13-nitrate (Z)-9-Tridecenyl nitrate
Z9-13Ac (Z)-9-Tridecenyl acetate

Δ10Δ12-14Al 10,12-Tetradecadienal
Δ10-14Ac delta-10-Tetradecenyl acetate
12me-14Ac 12-Methyltetradecyl acetate
14,14,14-trifluoro-E11-14Ac 14,14,14-Trifluoro-(E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate
14,14,14-trifluoro-Z11-14Ac 14,14,14-Trifluoro-(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate
14-fluoro-E11-14Ac 14-Fluoro-(E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate
14-fluoro-Z11-14Ac 14-Fluoro-(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate
14Ac Tetradecyl acetate
14Al Tetradecanal
14OH Tetradecan-1-ol 2-butyl
Z7-tetradecenoate 2-Butyl-(Z)-7-tetradecenoate
2R-butyl Z7-tetradecenoate (R)-2-Butyl-(Z)-7-tetradecenoate
2S-butyl Z7-tetradecenoate (S)-2-Butyl-(Z)-7-tetradecenoate

Δ10-14Ac delta-10-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E10-14Ac (E)-10-Tetradecenyl acetate
E10E12-14Ac (E,E)-10,12-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E10E12-14OH (E,E)-10,12-Tetradecadien-1-ol
E10Z12-14Ac (E,Z)-10,12-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E11,13-14Ac (E)-11,13-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E11,13-14Al (E)-11,13-Tetradecadienal
E11-14Ac (E)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate
E11-14Al (E)-11-Tetradecenal
E11-14OH (E)-11-Tetradecen-1-ol
E12-14Ac (E)-12-Tetradecenyl acetate
E3-14Ac (E)-3-Tetradecenyl acetate
E3E5-14Ac (E,E)-3,5-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E3Z5-14Ac (E,Z)-3,5-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E3Z7-14Ac (E,Z)-3,7-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E3Z8-14Ac (E,Z)-3,8-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E3Z8Z11-14Ac (E,Z,Z)-3,8,11-Tetradecatrienyl acetate
E4Z10-14Ac (E,Z)-4,10-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E4Z9-14Ac (E,Z)-4,9-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E4Z9-14Al (E,Z)-4,9-Tetradecadienal
E5-14Ac (E)-5-Tetradecenyl acetate
E5-14OH (E)-5-Tetradecen-1-ol
E6-14Ac (E)-6-Tetradecenyl acetate
E7-14Ac (E)-7-Tetradecenyl acetate
E8-14Ac (E)-8-Tetradecenyl acetate
E8-14Formate (E)-8-Tetradecenyl formate
E8E10-14Ac (E,E)-8,10-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E8E10-14Al (E,E)-8,10-Tetradecadienal
E8Z10-14Al (E,Z)-8,10-Tetradecadienal
E9-14Ac (E)-9-Tetradecenyl acetate
E9-14OH (E)-9-Tetradecen-1-ol
E9E11-14Ac (E,E)-9,11-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E9E12-14Ac (E,E)-9,12-Tetradecadienyl acetate
E9Z11-14Ac (E,Z)-9,11-Tetradecadienyl acetate isopropyl
Z7-tetradecenoate Isopropyl-(Z)-7-tetradecenoate
Z10-14Ac (Z)-10-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z10E12-14Ac (Z,E)-10,12-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z10Z12-14Ac (Z,Z)-10,12-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z10Z12-14OH (Z,Z)-10,12-Tetradecadien-1-ol
Z11,13-14Ac (Z)-11,13-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z11,13-14Al (Z)-11,13-Tetradecadienal
Z11,13-14Al (Z)-11,13-Tetradecadienal
Z11-14Ac (Z)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z11-14Al (Z)-11-Tetradecenal
Z11-14OH (Z)-11-Tetradecen-1-ol
Z12-14Ac (Z)-12-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z3-14Ac (Z)-3-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z3E5-14Ac (Z,E)-3,5-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z5-14Ac (Z)-5-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z5-14Al (Z)-5-Tetradecenal
Z5-14OH (Z)-5-Tetradecen-1-ol
Z6-14Ac (Z)-6-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z7-14Ac (Z)-7-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z7-14Al (Z)-7-Tetradecenal
Z7-14OH (Z)-7-Tetradecen-1-ol
Z8-14Ac (Z)-8-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z8-14Formate (Z)-8-Tetradecenyl formate
Z8-14OH (Z)-8-Tetradecen-1-ol
Z9-14-nitrate (Z)-9-Tetradecenyl nitrate
Z9-14Ac (Z)-9-Tetradecenyl acetate
Z9-14Al (Z)-9-Tetradecenal
Z9-14Formate (Z)-9-Tetradecenyl formate
Z9-14OH (Z)-9-Tetradecen-1-ol
Z9E11,13-14Ac (Z,E)-9,11,13-Tetradecatrienyl acetate
Z9E11,13-14Al (Z,E)-9,11,13-Tetradecatrienal
Z9E11-14Ac (Z,E)-9,11-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z9E11-14Al (Z,E)-9,11-Tetradecadienal
Z9E11-14OH (Z,E)-9,11-Tetradecadien-1-ol
Z9E12-14Ac (Z,E)-9,12-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z9E12-14Al (Z,E)-9,12-Tetradecadienal
Z9E12-14OH (Z,E)-9,12-Tetradecadien-1-ol
Z9E12-14Propionate (Z,E)-9,12-Tetradecadienyl propionate
Z9Z11-14Ac (Z,Z)-9,11-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z9Z11-14Al (Z,Z)-9,11-Tetradecadienal
Z9Z11-14OH (Z,Z)-9,11-Tetradecadien-1-ol
Z9Z12-14Ac (Z,Z)-9,12-Tetradecadienyl acetate
Z9Z12-14OH (Z,Z)-9,12-Tetradecadien-1-ol

Δ-15Ac Pentadecenyl acetate
10me14me-15isobutyrate 10,14-Dimethylpentadecyl isobutyrate
10Rme14me-15isobutyrate (R)-10,14-Dimethylpentadecyl isobutyrate
10Sme14me-15isobutyrate (S)-10,14-Dimethylpentadecyl isobutyrate
15-2Kt Pentadecan-2-one
15Ac Pentadecyl acetate
15OH Pentadecan-1-ol
1E11-15Hy (E)-1,11-Pentadecadiene
1Z11-15Hy (Z)-1,11-Pentadecadiene
5me9me-15Hy 5,9-Dimethylpentadecane
6me10me14me-2-15OH 6,10,14-Trimethyl-2-pentadecanol
6Rme10Rme14me-2R-15OH (R,R)-6,10,14-Trimethyl-2-pentadecanol
E12-15Ac (E)-12-Pentadecenyl acetate
E8E10-15Ac (E,E)-8,10-Pentadecadienyl acetate
E8Z10-15Ac (E,Z)-8,10-Pentadecadienyl acetate
E9-15Ac (E)-9-Pentadecenyl acetate
E9Z11-15Al (E,Z)-9,11-Pentadecadienal
Z10-15Ac (Z)-10-Pentadecenyl acetate
Z10-15Al (Z)-10-Pentadecenal
Z12-15Ac (Z)-12-Pentadecenyl acetate
Z8-15Ac (Z)-8-Pentadecenyl acetate
Z8E10-15Ac (Z,E)-8,10-Pentadecadienyl acetate
Z8Z10-15Ac (Z,Z)-8,10-Pentadecadienyl acetate
Z9-15Ac (Z)-9-Pentadecenyl acetate

Δ-16Ac Hexadecenyl acetate
Δ-16OH Hexadecen-1-ol
Δ10Δ12Δ14-16Ac 10,12,14-Hexadecatrienyl acetate
Δ11-16Ac 11-Hexadecenyl acetate
16Ac Hexadecyl acetate
16Al Hexadecanal
16OH Hexadecan-1-ol
2me-16Hy 2-Methylhexadecane
3me13me-16Hy 3,13-Dimethylhexadecane
5me9me-16Hy 5,9-Dimethylhexadecane
E10-16Al (E)-10-Hexadecenal
E10E12-16Ac (E,E)-10,12-Hexadecadienyl acetate
E10E12-16Al (E,E)-10,12-Hexadecadienal
E10E12-16OH (E,E)-10,12-Hexadecadien-1-ol
E10E12E14-16Al (E,E,E)-10,12,14-Hexadecatrienal
E10E12Z14-16Ac (E,E,Z)-10,12,14-Hexadecatrienyl acetate
E10E12Z14-16Al (E,E,Z)-10,12,14-Hexadecatrienal
E10Z12-16Ac (E,Z)-10,12-Hexadecadienyl acetate
E10Z12-16Al (E,Z)-10,12-Hexadecadienal, Bombykal
E10Z12-16OH (E,Z)-10,12-Hexadecadien-1-ol, Bombykol
E11-16Ac (E)-11-Hexadecenyl acetate
E11-16Al (E)-11-Hexadecenal
E11-16OH (E)-11-Hexadecen-1-ol
E11E13-16Ac (E,E)-11,13-Hexadecadienyl acetate
E11E13-16Al (E,E)-11,13-Hexadecadienal
E11E13-16OH (E,E)-11,13-Hexadecadien-1-ol
E11Z13-16Ac (E,Z)-11,13-Hexadecadienyl acetate
E11Z13-16Al (E,Z)-11,13-Hexadecadienal
E11Z13-16OH (E,Z)-11,13-Hexadecadien-1-ol
E4E6Z10-16Ac (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-Hexadecatrienyl acetate
E4E6Z10-16OH (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-Hexadecatrien-1-ol
E4E6Z11-16Ac (E,E,Z)-4,6,11-Hexadecatrienyl acetate
E4E6Z11-16Al (E,E,Z)-4,6,11-Hexadecatrienal
E4Z6-16Ac (E,Z)-4,6-Hexadecadienyl acetate
E4Z6-16Al (E,Z)-4,6-Hexadecadienal
E4Z6-16OH (E,Z)-4,6-Hexadecadien-1-ol
E4Z6Z10-16Ac (E,Z,Z)-4,6,10-Hexadecatrienyl acetate
E4Z6Z10-16OH (E,Z,Z)-4,6,10-Hexadecatrien-1-ol
E5-16Ac (E)-5-Hexadecenyl acetate
E6-16Ac (E)-6-Hexadecenyl acetate
E6Z11-16Ac (E,Z)-6,11-Hexadecadienyl acetate
E6Z11-16Al (E,Z)-6,11-Hexadecadienal
E9Z11-16Al (E,Z)-9,11-Hexadecadienal methyl hexadecanoate Methyl hexadecanoate methyl hexadecenoate Methyl hexadecenoate
Y11-16Ac 11-Hexadecynyl acetate
Y11Z13-16Ac (Z)-13-Hexadecen-11-yn-1-ol acetate
Y11Z13-16Al (Z)-13-Hexadecen-11-ynal
Y11Z13-16OH (Z)-13-Hexadecen-11-yn-1-ol
Z10-16Ac (Z)-10-Hexadecenyl acetate
Z10-16Al (Z)-10-Hexadecenal
Z10E12-16Ac (Z,E)-10,12-Hexadecadienyl acetate
Z10E12-16Al (Z,E)-10,12-Hexadecadienal
Z10Z12-16Al (Z,Z)-10,12-Hexadecadienal
Z11-16-trifluoroacetate (Z)-11-Hexadecenyl trifluoroacetate
Z11-16Ac (Z)-11-Hexadecenyl acetate
Z11-16Al (Z)-11-Hexadecenal
Z11-16Formate (Z)-11-Hexadecenyl formate
Z11-16nitrile (Z)-11-Hexadecenonitrile
Z11-16OH (Z)-11-Hexadecen-1-ol
Z11E13-16Ac (Z,E)-11,13-Hexadecadienyl acetate
Z11E13-16Al (Z,E)-11,13-Hexadecadienal
Z11E13-16OH (Z,E)-11,13-Hexadecadien-1-ol
Z11E14-16Ac (Z,E)-11,14-Hexadecadienyl acetate
Z11Z13-16Ac (Z,Z)-11,13-Hexadecadienyl acetate
Z11Z13-16Al (Z,Z)-11,13-Hexadecadienal
Z11Z13-16OH (Z,Z)-11,13-Hexadecadien-1-ol
Z12-16Ac (Z)-12-Hexadecenyl acetate
Z12-16Al (Z)-12-Hexadecenal
Z3-16Ac (Z)-3-Hexadecenyl acetate
Z5-16Ac (Z)-5-Hexadecenyl acetate
Z7-16Ac (Z)-7-Hexadecenyl acetate
Z7-16Al (Z)-7-Hexadecenal
Z7E11-16Ac (Z,E)-7,11-Hexadecadienyl acetate
Z7E11-16Al (Z,E)-7,11-Hexadecadienal
Z7E11-16OH (Z,E)-7,11-Hexadecadien-1-ol
Z7Z11-16Ac (Z,Z)-7,11-Hexadecadienyl acetate
Z7Z11-16Al (Z,Z)-7,11-Hexadecadienal
Z7Z11-16OH (Z,Z)-7,11-Hexadecadien-1-ol
Z8Z10-16Ac (Z,Z)-8,10-Hexadecadienyl acetate
Z9-16Ac (Z)-9-Hexadecenyl acetate
Z9-16Al (Z)-9-Hexadecenal
Z9-16nitrile (Z)-9-Hexadecenonitrile
Z9-16OH (Z)-9-Hexadecen-1-ol
Z9E11-16Al (Z,E)-9,11-Hexadecadienal

Δ-17Ac Heptadecenyl acetate
Δ-17Hy Heptadecene
16me-17isobutyrate 16-Methylheptadecyl isobutyrate
17-2Kt Heptadecan-2-one
17Ac Heptadecyl acetate
17Hy Heptadecane
2me-17Hy 2-Methylheptadecane
2me5me-17Hy 2,5-Dimethylheptadecane
2me5Rme-17Hy (R)-2,5-Dimethylheptadecane
2me5Sme-17Hy (S)-2,5-Dimethylheptadecane
3me13me-17Hy 3,13-Dimethylheptadecane
3Sme13Rme-17Hy (S,R)-3,13-Dimethylheptadecane
5me-17Hy 5-Methylheptadecane
5me11me-17Hy 5,11-Dimethylheptadecane
5me9me-17Hy 5,9-Dimethylheptadecane
5Rme11Sme-17Hy (R,S)-5,11-Dimethylheptadecane
5Sme9Sme-17Hy (S,S)-5,9-Dimethylheptadecane
7me-17Hy 7-Methylheptadecane
7me11me-17Hy 7,11-Dimethylheptadecane
7Sme-17Hy (S)-7-Methylheptadecane
cis6,7epo-2me-17Hy 2-Methyl-cis-6,7-epoxyheptadecane
meso-7me11me-17Hy (meso-7,11)-7,11-Dimethylheptadecane
Z11-17Ac (Z)-11-Heptadecenyl acetate
Z3Z6-cis9,10epo-17Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-cis-9,10-Epoxyheptadecadiene
Z3Z6Z9-17Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Heptadecatriene
Z3Z9-cis6,7epo-17Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-cis-6,7-Epoxyheptadecadiene
Z6Z9-17Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-Heptadecadiene
Z6Z9-3R4Sepo-17Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-(3R,4S)-3,4-Epoxyheptadecadiene
Z6Z9-3S4Repo-17Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-(3S,4R)-3,4-Epoxyheptadecadiene
Z6Z9-cis3,4epo-17Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-cis-3,4-Epoxyheptadecadiene
Z9-16me-17isobutyrate (Z)-16-Methyl-9-heptadecenyl isobutyrate
Z9-cis6,7epo-17Hy (Z)-9-cis-6,7-Epoxyheptadecene

Δ-18Ac Octadecenyl acetate
Δ6-18isovalerate 6-Octadecenyl isovalerate
Δ6-18valerate 6-Octadecenyl valerate
Δ9-18isovalerate 9-Octadecenyl isovalerate
10me14me-1-18Hy 10,14-Dimethyl-1-octadecene
10Sme14Sme-1-18Hy (S,S)-10,14-Dimethyl-1-octadecene
14me-1-18Hy 14-Methyl-1-octadecene
14Sme-1-18Hy (S)-14-Methyl-1-octadecene
14Sme-18Hy (S)-14-Methyloctadecane
18Ac Octadecyl acetate
18Al Octadecanal
18OH Octadecan-1-ol
2me-18Hy 2-Methyloctadecane
2meZ7-18Hy 2-Methyl-(Z)-7-octadecene
5me9me-18Hy 5,9-Dimethyloctadecane
7R8Sepo-2me-18Hy (7R,8S)-7,8-Epoxy-2-methyloctadecane, (+)-Disparlure
7R8Sepo18Hy (7R,8S)-7,8-Epoxyoctadecane, (+)-Monachalure
7S8Repo-2me-18Hy (7S,8R)-7,8-Epoxy-2-methyloctadecane c
is7,8epo-2me-18Hy cis-7,8-Epoxy-2-methyloctadecane, Disparlure
E11-18Al (E)-11-Octadecenal
E11E14-18Al (E,E)-11,14-Octadecadienal
E13-18Al (E)-13-Octadecenal
E14-18Al (E)-14-Octadecenal
E2-18Ac (E)-2-Octadecenyl acetate
E2-18Al (E)-2-Octadecenal
E2Z13-18Ac (E,Z)-2,13-Octadecadienyl acetate
E2Z13-18Al (E,Z)-2,13-Octadecadienal
E2Z13-18OH (E,Z)-2,13-Octadecadien-1-ol
E3E13-18Ac (E,E)-3,13-Octadecadienyl acetate
E3Z13-18Ac (E,Z)-3,13-Octadecadienyl acetate
E3Z13-18OH (E,Z)-3,13-Octadecadien-1-ol
epoxy-Z3Z6Z9-18Hy Epoxidized (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene methyl octadecadienoate Methyl octadecadienoate methyl octadecanoate Methyl octadecanoate methyl octadecenoate Methyl octadecenoate
Z11-18Ac (Z)-11-Octadecenyl acetate
Z11-18Al (Z)-11-Octadecenal
Z11-18OH (Z)-11-octadecen-1-ol
Z11Z13-18Al (Z,Z)-11,13-Octadecadienal
Z13-18Ac (Z)-13-Octadecenyl acetate
Z13-18Al (Z)-13-Octadecenal
Z13-18OH (Z)-13-Octadecen-1-ol
Z13Z15-18Al (Z,Z)-13,15-Octadecadienal
Z2E13-18Ac (Z,E)-2,13-Octadecadienyl acetate
Z2Z13-18Ac (Z,Z)-2,13-Octadecadienyl acetate
Z3E13-18Ac (Z,E)-3,13-Octadecadienyl acetate
Z3Z13-18Ac (Z,Z)-3,13-Octadecadienyl acetate
Z3Z13-18Al (Z,Z)-3,13-Octadecadienal
Z3Z13-18OH (Z,Z)-3,13-Octadecadien-1-ol
Z3Z6-9,10epo-18Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-9,10-Epoxyoctadecadiene
Z3Z6-9R10Sepo-18Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9R,10S)-9,10-Epoxyoctadecadiene
Z3Z6-9S10Repo-18Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9S,10R)-9,10-Epoxyoctadecadiene
Z3Z6Z9-18Ac (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Octadecatrienyl acetate
Z3Z6Z9-18Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Octadecatriene
Z3Z9-6,7epo-18Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-Epoxyoctadecadiene
Z3Z9-6S7Repo-18Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-(6S,7R)-6,7-Epoxyoctadecadiene
Z6-9,10epo-18Hy (Z)-6-9,10-Epoxyoctadecene
Z6-9S10Repo-18Hy (Z)-6-(9S,10R)-9,10-Epoxyoctadecene
Z6Z9-3,4epo-18Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-3,4-Epoxyoctadecadiene
Z7-18butyrate (Z)-7-Octadecenyl butyrate
Z7-18Hy (Z)-7-Octadecene
Z7-18isobutyrateb (Z)-7-Octadecenyl isobutyrate
Z7-18isovalerate (Z)-7-Octadecenyl isovalerate
Z7-18methylbutyrate (Z)-7-Octadecenyl methylbutyrate
Z9-18Al (Z)-9-Octadecenal
Z9-18isovalerate (Z)-9-Octadecenyl isovalerate
Z9-18methylbutyrate (Z)-9-Octadecenyl methylbutyrate
Z9-6,7epo-18Hy (Z)-9-6,7-Epoxyoctadecene
Z9Z12-18Al (Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienal
Z9Z12Z15-18Al (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-Octadecatrienal

19Hy Nonadecane
1E3Z6Z9-19Hy (E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-Nonadecatetraene
1Z3Z6Z9-19Hy (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-Nonadecatetraene
2me-19Hy 2-Methylnonadecane
9Sme-19Hy (S)-9-Methylnonadecane epoxy-
Z3Z6Z9-19Hy Epoxidized (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene
Z12-19-9Kt (Z)-12-Nonadecen-9-one
Z3Z6-9,10epo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-9,10-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z3Z6-9R10Sepo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9R,10S)-9,10-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z3Z6-9S10Repo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9S,10R)-9,10-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z3Z6-cis9,10epo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-cis-9,10-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z3Z6Z9-19Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Nonadecatriene
Z3Z6Z9E11-19Hy (Z,Z,Z,E)-3,6,9,11-Nonadecatetraene
Z3Z6Z9Z11-19Hy (Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,11-Nonadecatetraene
Z3Z9-6,7epo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z3Z9-6R7Sepo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-(6R,7S)-6,7-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z3Z9-6S7Repo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-(6S,7R)-6,7-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z3Z9-cis6,7epo-19Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-cis-6,7-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z6-9S10Repo-19Hy (Z)-6-(9S,10R)-9,10-Epoxynonadecene
Z6-cis9,10epo-19Hy (Z)-6-cis-9,10-Epoxynonadecene
Z6Z9-19-3Kt (Z,Z)-6,9-Nonadecadien-3-one
Z6Z9-19Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-Nonadecadiene
Z6Z9-3,4epo-19Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-3,4-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z6Z9-3R4Sepo-19Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-(3R,4S)-3,4-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z6Z9-3S4Repo-19Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-(3S,4R)-3,4-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z6Z9-cis3,4epo-19Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-cis-3,4-Epoxynonadecadiene
Z7-19-11Kt (Z)-7-Nonadecen-11-one
Z9-19Hy (Z)-9-Nonadecene
Z9-6,7epo-19Hy (Z)-9-6,7-Epoxynonadecene
Z9-6R7Sepo-19Hy (Z)-9-(6R,7S)-6,7-Epoxynonadecene Z9-6S7Repo-19Hy (Z)-9-(6S,7R)-6,7-Epoxynonadecene

1Z3Z6-cis9,10epo-20Hy (Z,Z)-1,3,6-cis-9,10-Epoxyeicosatriene
1Z3Z6Z9-20Hy (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-Eicosatetraene
20Ac Eicosyl acetate
20Hy Eicosane
20OH Eicosan-1-ol
7R8Sepo-2me-20Hy (7R,8S)-7,8-Epoxy-2-methyleicosane, (+)-Xylinalure
7S8Repo-2me-20Hy (7S,8R)-7,8-Epoxy-2-methyleicosane, (-)-Xylinalure
epoxy-Z3Z6Z9-20Hy Epoxidized (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-eicosatriene
Z11Z14Z17-20 4-methylvalerate (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienyl 4-methylvalerate
Z11Z14Z17-20isobutyrate (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienyl isobutyrate
Z11Z14Z17-20methylheptanoate (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienyl methylheptanoate
Z11Z14Z17-20n-butyrate (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienyl n-butyrate
Z11Z14Z17-20n-hexanoate (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienyl n-hexanoate
Z11Z14Z17-20n-valerate (Z,Z,Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienyl n-valerate
Z3Z6-20Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-Eicosadiene
Z3Z6-9R10Sepo-20Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9R,10S)-9,10-Epoxyeicosadiene
Z3Z6-9S10Repo-20Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9S,10R)-9,10-Epoxyeicosadiene
Z3Z6-cis9,10epo-20Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-cis-9,10-Epoxyeicosadiene
Z3Z6Z9-20Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Eicosatriene
Z3Z9-6,7epo-20Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-Epoxyeicosadiene
Z3Z9-6R7Sepo-20Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-(6R,7S)-6,7-Epoxyeicosadiene
Z3Z9-6S7Repo-20Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-(6S,7R)-6,7-Epoxyeicosadiene
Z6-9,10epo-20Hy (Z)-6-9,10-Epoxyeicosene
Z6Z9-20-11OH (Z,Z)-6,9-Eicosadien-11-ol
Z6Z9-20Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-Eicosadiene
Z6Z9-3,4epo-20Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-3,4-Epoxyeicosadiene
Z7-20-11Kt (Z)-7-Eicosene-11-one Z9-20Hy (Z)-9-Eicosene

Δ-21Hy Heneicosene
11R-Z6Z9-21-11OH (11R)-(Z,Z)-6,9-Heneicosadien-11-ol
11S-Z6Z9-21-11OH (11S)-(Z,Z)-6,9-Heneicosadien-11-ol
1Z3Z6-9S10Repo-21Hy (Z,Z)-1,3,6-(9S,10R)-9,10-Epoxyheneicosatriene
1Z3Z6-cis9,10epo-21Hy (Z,Z)-1,3,6-cis-9,10-Epoxyheneicosatriene
1Z3Z6Z9-21Hy (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-Heneicosatetraene
21Hy Heneicosane
epoxy-Z3Z6Z9-21Hy Epoxidized (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heneicosatriene
Z3-cis6,7-cis9,10diepo-21Hy (Z)-3-cis-6,7-cis-9,10-diepoxyheneicosene
Z3Z6-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-Heneicosadiene
Z3Z6-9,10epo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-9,10-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z3Z6-9R10Sepo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9R,10S)-9,10-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z3Z6-9S10Repo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-(9S,10R)-9,10-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z3Z6-cis9,10epo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-cis-9,10-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z3Z6Z9-21Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Heneicosatriene
Z3Z9-6,7epo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z3Z9-6R7Sepo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-(6R,7S)-6,7-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z3Z9-6S7Repo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-(6S,7R)-6,7-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z3Z9-cis6,7epo-21Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-cis-6,7-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z6,13Sme-21Hy (Z)-6-(13S)-13-Methylheneicosene
Z6-21-11Kt (Z)-6-Heneicosene-11-one
Z6-21-9Kt (Z)-6-Heneicosene-9-one, Thyellinone
Z6-9,10epo-21Hy (Z)-6-9,10-Epoxyheneicosene
Z6-cis9,10epo-21Hy (Z)-6-cis-9,10-Epoxyheneicosene
Z6E8-21-11Kt (Z,E)-6,8-Heneicosadiene-11-one
Z6E9-21-11Kt (Z,E)-6,9-Heneicosadiene-11-one
Z6Z9,20-21Hy (Z,Z)-6,9,20-Heneicosatriene
Z6Z9-21-11Kt (Z,Z)-6,9-Heneicosadiene-11-one
Z6Z9-21Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-Heneicosadiene
Z6Z9-3,4epo-21Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-3,4-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z6Z9-cis3,4epo-21Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-cis-3,4-Epoxyheneicosadiene
Z9-21Hy (Z)-9-Heneicosene
Z9-3R4Sepo-6S7Repo-21Hy (Z)-9-(3R,4S)-(6S,7R)-Diepoxyheneicosene
Z9-3S4Repo-6S7Repo-21Hy (Z)-9-(3S,4R)-(6S,7R)-Diepoxyheneicosene

22Ac Docosyl acetate
22Hy Docosane
Z3Z6Z9-22Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Docosatriene
Z3Z9-6,7epo-22Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-Epoxydocosadiene
Z6Z9-22-11OH (Z,Z)-6,9-Docosadien-11-ol
Z6Z9-22Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-Docosadiene
Z7Z13Z16Z19-22isobutyrate (Z,Z,Z,Z)-7,13,16,19-Docosatetraen-1-ol isobutyrate

23Hy Tricosane
Z3Z6-9,10epo-23Hy (Z,Z)-3,6-9,10-Epoxytricosadiene
Z3Z6Z9-23Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Tricosatriene
Z3Z9-6,7epo-23Hy (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-Epoxytricosadiene
Z6Z9-23Hy (Z,Z)-6,9-Tricosadiene
Z7-23-11Kt (Z)-7-Tricosan-11-one

24Ac Tetracosyl acetate 24Hy Tetracosane

25Hy Pentacosane Z3Z6Z9-25Hy (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-Pentacosatriene

26Hy Hexacosane

27Hy Heptacosane

28Hy Octacosane

29Hy Nonacosane

Sandalwood: Properties and Uses (Indian Mysore Sandal)

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Sandalwood is the name of different fragrant woods. These woods are yielded by trees in the genus Santalum, which are often used for the essential oil it contains. The wood is heavy and yellow in color as well as fine-grained, and unlike many other aromatic woods it retains its fragrance for decades. The sandalwood fragrance is very distinctive and is used in countless applications. Sandalwood has been valued and treasured for many years for its fragrance, carving, medical and religious qualities.

Genuine sandalwoods Santalum album
True sandalwoods are medium-sized hemiparasitic trees of the Genus Santalum. Santalum album is the most notable members of this Genus in India. Several other members of the genus also have fragrant wood and are found across India, Australia, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands. Mysore district of Karnataka in India is known globally for Sandalwood and its originality.

Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is currently a threatened species and consequently very expensive. It is indigenous to South India, and grows in the Western Ghats and a few other mountain ranges like the Kalrayan and Shevaroyan Hills. Although all sandalwood trees in India and Nepal are government-owned and their harvest is strictly controlled, many trees are illegally cut down and smuggled out of the country.

Sandalwood essential oil prices have risen up to $1,000–1,500 per kg in the last 5 years. Some countries regard the sandal oil trade as ecologically harmful because it encourages the overharvesting of sandalwood trees. Sandalwood from the Mysore region of Karnataka, Southern India is widely considered to be of the highest quality available.

New plantations have been set up with international aid in Tamilnadu in order to gain the economic benefits of sandalwood production. Today, in Kununurra in Western Australia, Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) is being grown on a very large scale. Huge plantations surround this picturesque little town.

Production Sandalwood leafProducing commercially valuable sandalwood with high levels of fragrance oils, requires Santalum trees to be around eight years of age as a minimum, but a preference of fourteen years and above is present. Australia is now the largest producer of Santalum album with a majority being grown around Kununurra, Western Australia.
Unlike most trees, sandalwood is harvested by toppling the entire tree instead of sawing them down at the trunk. This way, valuable wood from the stump and root can also be sold or processed for oil.

Properties of sandalwood oil:
Promotes hydration and moisture, preventing wrinkles
Softens and soothes the skin
Effective in relieving dehydrated skin – making it great for anti-ageing skincare
Relieves itching and inflation of the skin
Acts as an astringent which has great toning effect on the skin
Fights oily skin conditions
Prevents the skin from forming ugly scars and fights dry eczema and skin cancer
Fragrance creates a calming and harmonizing effect
Reduces tension and confusion
Ideal use in depression, hectic daily lifestyles and states of fear, stress, nervousness and anxiety

Sandalwood essential oil provides perfumes with a striking wood base note. Sandalwood smells somewhat like other wood scents, except it has a bright and fresh edge with few natural analogues. When used in smaller proportions in a perfume, it is an excellent fixative to enhance the head space of other fragrances.
The oil from sandalwood is widely used in the cosmetic industry and is expensive. The true sandalwood is a protected species, and demand for it cannot be met in full. Many species of plants are traded under the name of "sandalwood". Within the genus Santalum alone, there are more than nineteen species that can be called sandalwood. Traders will often accept oil from closely related species, such as various species in the genus Santalum, as well as from unrelated plants such as West Indian Sandalwood (Amyris balsamifera) in the family Rutaceae.

Used for religious worships and ceremonies:
Sandalwood paste is integral to rituals and ceremonies, to mark religious utensils and to decorate the icons of the deities. It is also distributed thereafter to devotees, who apply it to the forehead or the neck and chest. Preparation of the paste is considered a duty fit only for the pure, and is therefore entrusted in temples and during ceremonies only to priests.
The paste is prepared by grinding pieces of the wood by hand upon granite slabs shaped for the purpose. With slow addition of water a thick paste results, which is mixed with saffron or other such pigments to make Chandan.
Sandalwood is considered in alternative medicine to bring one closer to the divine. Sandalwood essential oil, which is very expensive in its pure form, is used primarily for Ayurvedic purposes and treating anxiety.

Sandalwood is considered to be of the padma (lotus) group and attributed to Amitabha Buddha. Sandalwood scent is believed to transform one's desires and maintain a person's alertness while in meditation. Sandalwood is also one of the more popular scents used for incense used when offering incense to the Buddha.
It is said to have been used for embalming the corpses of princes in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from the 9th century.

Sandalwood essential oil was popular in medicine up to 1920-1930, mostly as an urogenital (internal) and skin (external) antiseptic. Its main component beta-santalol (~90%) has antimicrobial properties. It is used in aromatherapy and to prepare soaps. Due to this antimicrobial activity, it can be used to clear skin from blackheads and spots, but it must always be properly diluted with a carrier oil. Because of its strength, sandalwood oil should never be applied to the skin without being diluted in a carrier oil.

Due to its low fluorescence and optimal refractive index, sandalwood oil is often employed as an immersion oil within ultraviolet and fluorescence microscopy.

Sandalwood is distilled in a four-step process, incorporating boiling, steaming, condensation and separation.

Australian Aborigines ate the seed kernels, nuts, and fruit of local sandalwoods, such as quandong (Santalum acuminatum).

The most well- known product of Sandalwood in India is the Mysore Sandal Soap manufactured and sold by Wipro.

Nannari/ Indian sarsaparilla Sharbat

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Botanical name: Hemidesmus indicus

Preparation Time : 15 minutes
Cooking Time : 15 minutes
Serves / Makes : 1 squash bottle

Indian Sarasaparilla(nannari) roots 100gms
Water 1 litre
Sugar 1 kg
Lemon 6

Break the sarasaparilla roots into 1"-2" pieces.
Dry very well in hot sun.Ligtly crush and remove the hard portion inside.
Powder it fine in a dry grinder.
Boil the water, remove from the stove and add this powder,mixing well.
Leave for 8-10 hrs undisturbed.
Strain using fine muslin cloth, add sugar.
Put on stove again.Heat stirring continuously ( to prevent sugar sticking at the bottom) till you get a slightly sticky consistency.
Remove, cool well and add juice from the lemons.
More lime juice is optional.
This preserves very well.

Comments & Tips
To 1 portion of syrup add 3 portions ice water and put it in a blender for few seconds.
A few cubes of the fleshy and icy palm fruit(Tadgola) can also cut into cubes and added. In Tamil Nadu, this is a very popular drink especially to beat the heat of the soaring sun.
Some juice vendors add sliced bananas as well to it.
It fizzes very well and tastes very good.

How to make alcohol at home

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You can make alcohol at home using sugar and yeast. This will be a very basic alcohol which can be used to make several types of alcoholic drinks or fruit and alcohol based beverages. The ingredients are easily available and so is the equipment required to make the alcohol. It is important to remember that making alcohol is a commercially licensed activity and it is illegal to make and sell alcohol without the necessary permits. Check your local laws before undertaking this activity. Think of this article as gathering general knowledge rather than an invitation on how to make illicit alcohol. Here's how to make alcohol. Step 1:Materials and equipment required.

To make about 5.5 gallons of homemade alcohol, you will need:
18 pounds of granulated table sugar

One packet of super yeast or distillers yeast

Tap or distilled water - 5.5 gallons

A clean metal pot to prepare the sugar solution

A 7.5 gallon food grade bucket with lid (alternatively use can use a plastic or glass carboy) Rubber gasket and grommet (one each)

A bubbler airlock

Fining agent to clarify the alcohol - isinglass or a mix of kieselsol and chitosan

Carbon filter Liquor/wine bottles or mason jars with lids or cork stoppers for storage

Large spoon or ladle for stirring Sanitizer (available at home-brewing or winemaking shops)

Step 2:Sanitize all the equipment. Use a sanitizer, which is available at any of the specialty shops mentioned in step one, to clean all the equipment - bucket, spoon, airlock, etc - which will be used in the process of making alcohol. If the equipment is new, then you may skip this step.

Step 3:Making the sugar solution. In a clean metal pot, add the water and sugar to create the sugar solution. Make sure that the water being used is warm (about 90F). Once the sugar is completely dissolved, pour the solution into the fermenting bucket or carboy.

Step 4:Add the yeast. Add the entire contents of the yeast packet into the sugar solution and stir to let the yeast completely mix with the solution.

Step 5:Covering the solution. Make a hole on the plastic lid of the bucket in which you can fit the rubber grommet. Use the rubber gasket to line the inner circumference of the lid, so that when it is covered over the bucket the cover is sealed airtight. Fix the bubble airlock on to the rubber grommet firmly and add some clean water or vodka in the airlock to allow carbon dioxide to be released from the solution, but not allow any air in.

Step 6:Fermentation. Place the covered bucket in a place where the temperature is around 70-80F. Allow the fermentation process to go on for about 12-15 days as the yeast converts the sugar into alcohol. The airlock will bubble a lot while the fermentation is active, so the complete stoppage of all bubbling in the airlock will confirm that the process is complete.

Step 7:Clarify and filter the alcohol. Once fermentation has ceased, use a fining agent such as icinglass or a mix of kieselsol and chitosan, to remove all suspended yeast or other particles in the alcohol. Reseal the bucket after adding the fining agent and let the liquid sit for another 2-3 days. At the end of this period, pour out the liquid into another clean, airtight vessel without the bottom layer of sediment. Pass the liquid through a food-grade carbon filter to further remove any particles or impurities and pour the finished and distilled alcohol into clean liquor/wine bottles or mason jars.

Your homemade alcohol is now ready to be used; you can mix it with a variety of fruit juices or add liquor flavorings. Make sure that the alcohol is stored in airtight bottles or containers. Avoid drinking the alcohol straight, it not only tastes awful, but can also give you a massive headache. Now that you know how to make homemade alcohol, you can brag to your friends at your next cocktail party that you actually made their drinks!

WHO Classification of Pesticide Toxicity

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Synthesis of Aspirin: How to prepare Oil of Wintergreen.

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Organic chemistry can be defined as chemical reactions between molecules that contain carbon in a large part of their structure. Often these organic molecules contain many covalent bonds, which are the type of bonds found between two non-metal atoms. If you look on the periodic table you will see that only a small portion of the elements are considered to be nonmetals, including C, N, O, S, Cl, and F. This small number of elements can be bonded together in different amounts, bonding types (single, double triple bonds), and structural patterns to form over 10 million known molecules! The billions of dollars generated by the pharmaceutical industry is a prime example of how important organic chemistry is to our modern day society. In this experiment you will perform an organic synthesis to make aspirin. Aspirin is thetrade name for the molecule acetylsalicylic acid (aren’t you glad we don’t have to use “that” name when you have a headache).

The earliest known use of this molecule has been traced back to the fifth century B.C. The Greek physician Hippocrates described an extract of willow tree bark, a bitter powder that could be used to reduce fevers. In 1829, Salicin was isolated from willow bark and used as a pain reliever. Unfortunately Salicin was not very popular since it was found to be very acidic and a stomach irritant. In 1897 a German chemist named Felix Hoffman was working for the Bayer chemical company. Hoffman was looking for a less acidic pain reliever that his father could take for his arthritis. His research led to the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or aspirin. Bayer patented the name and commenced to market the product in 1899. It was a huge success and sales grew rapidly. In fact, the company set up by Friedrich Bayer & Company is generally reckoned to have been the first pharmaceutical company, and the production of aspirin is generally accepted to have laid the foundation of the modern pharmaceutical industry.

Interestingly enough it wasn’t until the 1970’s that scientists began to understand how aspirin actually worked as a pain reliever. Today 80 billion aspirin tablets are consumed every year across the globe to reduce fevers, relieve pain, and even help prevent heart attacks.

In commercial aspirin products, a small amount of ASA (300 to 400 mg) is bound together with a starch binder and sometimes caffeine and buffers to make an aspirin tablet. The basic conditions in the small intestine break down the ASA to yield salicylic acid, which is absorbed into the bloodstream. The addition of a buffer reduces the irritation caused by the carboxylic acid group of the aspirin molecule. Aspirin can be produced in a one step chemical process by reacting salicylic acid with acetyl chloride, according to the reaction:

Aspirin is a white solid that is almost completely insoluble in water. We will use this physical property of our product to separate it from the final solution.If time allows, we will synthesize methyl salicylate, which is another ester of salicylic acid. It occurs in a wide range of plants and is known as ‘oil of wintergreen’. It is still used in candies and in ointments for joint and muscle pains.

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is used to separate and identify aspirin. Small amounts of the synthesized product, starting material (salicylic acid) and commercial aspirin are placed along one edge of a chromatography plate. The plate is then placed in a container with solvent. With the plate acting like a wick, the solvent flows up the chromatogram, carrying the samples with it. Molecules that are more soluble in the solvent will move higher on the paper; the molecules that are more attracted to the plate will remain closer to the original line. After removing the plate, the samples can be detected wit UV light.

Safety Notes

1. The acetyl chloride and pyridine should only be dispensed in a hood.

2. Always wear appropriate eye protection and gloves while handling the chemicals.


Part I: Synthesis of Aspirin

1. Heat approximately 150 mL of water in a 250 mL beaker using a hot plate. (Set-up the hot plate under the hood.)

2. To a large test tube, add 1 g of salicylic acid, a boiling chip, and 8 small drops of 85% phosphoric acid (H3PO4.)

3. Add 2 mL of acetic anhydride. Use the acetic anhydride to wash the other reagents to the bottom of the test tube.

4. Mix the reactants thoroughly with a glass stirring rod, and then heat the reaction tube in the beaker of hot water at ~90°C for 5 min.

5. Cautiously add 1.5 mL of d H2O dropwise to the reaction mixture. This step will decompose excess acetic anhydride and be exothermic (give off heat.)

6. When the reaction is over, add 2 mL more water and allow the tube to cool slowly to room temperature. Allow the solution to sit for 10 min. If crystallization does not occur during the cooling process, add a seed crystal or scratch the inside of the tube with a glass stirring rod.

7. Cool the tube in ice until crystallization is complete, and then remove the crystals using vacuum filtration. Wash the crystals with a very small quantity of ice cold water.

8. Place the product onto a piece of filter paper and squeeze the crystals between sheets of filter paper to absorb excess water. Allow to air dry while performing

Part II of this experiment.

9. After you have completed Part II, weigh the crystals and record the weight.10. With the help of the instructor, prepare and obtain an IR spectrum of your product.

Part II: Synthesis of Wintergreen

1. Weigh approximately 1g of salicylic acid and place in a test tube.

2. Add 10mL of methanol to the test tube and gently shake the test tube until all of the salicylic acidhas dissolved.

3. Carefully add 20 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to the test tube.

4. Stir the contents in the test tube with a stirring rod.

5. Place the test tube in the water bath for approximately two minutes.

6. Remove the test tube from the water bath and carefully sniff the contents. If you smell wintergreen then you have made methyl salicylate.

Oil of wintergreen is the active ingredient in all formulations made for Pain Relief like Relispray, Fast Relief, Wintogeno, Volini. etc.

Classification of Chemical Releasing Stimuli/ Insect Pheromones

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Salycylic acid: A agrochemical(Fungicide)

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Salycylic acid, the acid of which the acetyl derivative is used widely as the most proved and tested analgesic and antipyretic, under the name ASPIRIN, was surprisingly found to be a potent agrochemical.

Salylic acid was tested as a non-conventional agrochemical on the fruit rot disease of Amla(Aonla/Indian Gooseberry) caused by penicillium citrinum under in vitro conditions. Salylic acid at 0.001M was found effective in reducing the fruit rot severity. this chemical showed no fungitoxicity at its concentration when tested by poisoned technique.

List of Combination products of Agrochemicals

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Carbendazim + mancozeb WP

Chlorpyriphos + Cypermethrin EC

Cypermethrin + Quinalphos EC

Deltamethrin + Triazophos EC

Ethion + Cypermethrin EC

Mancozeb + metalaxyl WP

Profenofos + Cypermethrin EC

Streptomycin + Tetracycline

List of Herbicides/ Weedicides

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Anilophos EC

Atrazine WP

BPMC/Fenobucarb EC

Butalachlor EC, GR

Clodinafop propargyl WP

2, 4-D Sodium salt WP

2, 4-D Dimethylamine Salt SL

2, 4-D Ethyl ester EC

Fenoxaprop-P-Ethyl EC

Glyphosate SL

Imazethapyr SL

Isoproturon WP

Metribuzin WP

Oxyfluorfen EC

Paraquat dichloride SL

Pendimethalin EC

Pretilachlor EC

Sulfosulfuron WDG

Metsulfuron methyl WP

Triclopyr EC

List of Fungicides

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Carbendazim WP, SC

Tricyclazole WP

Copper oxychloride WP

Hexaconazole EC, SC

Mancozeb WP

Metalaxyl WS

Propiconazole EC

Propineb WP

Sulphur WP, DP, WDG, SC

Thiophanate methyl WP

Thiram WP, DS

Validamycin SL

Ziram SC

List of Insecticides

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Acephate SP
Acetamiprid SP
Aluminium phosphide Tablets
Alphacypermethrin EC, SC
Bifenthrin EC
Buprofezin SC
Carbaryl DP, WP
Cartap hydrochloride GR,SP
Chlorpyriphos Ethyl EC, WP, GR, DP
Cypermethrin EC, DP
Deltamethrin EC, SC, DP, WP
Diazinon EC, GR
Dichlorvos(DDVP) EC
Dicofol EC
Dimethoate EC
Emamectin benzoate EC
Endosulfan EC, DP
Ethion EC
Fipronil SC, GR
Fenvalerate EC, DP
Imidacloprid SL, WS, SC, WG, FS
Indoxacarb SC
Lambda cyhalothrin EC, WP
Malation EC, DP
Methyl parathion EC, DP
Monocrotophos SL
Oxydemeton methyl EC
Permethrin EC, DP
Phosphamidon SL
Profenofos EC, DP
Quinalphos EC, DP
Temephos EC, GR
Thiamethoxam WDG
Triazophos EC
Zinc phosphide WP

Trichoderma viride: A natural biopesticide, biofungicide and water treatment agent.

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Trichoderma viride, is a fungus, showing some benefits in use in the environment, and hence, it is also used as a bio-fungicide. Though it is a pathogen causing Green Mold Rot in Onion, it is used for various seed and oil treatment for suppression of various diseases caused by fungal pathogens.

They have evolved numerous mechanisms for both attack of other fungi and for enhancing plant and root growth such as: Mycoparasitism Antibiosis Competition for nutrients or space Tolerance to stress through enhanced root and plant development Solubilization and sequestration of inorganic nutrients Induced resistance Inactivation of the pathogen’s enzymes by secreting certain plant growth stimulating substance.


Used in Collar rot caused by Pellicularia rolfsii

Root rot caused by Pellicularis filamentosa

Dry rot caused by Macrophomina phaseoli

Loose smut caused by Ustilago segetum tritici

Karnal bunt diseases

Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseoli

Black surf caused by Rhizoctonia solani

Seedling blight caused by Pythium

Damping off caused by Pythium sp. Phytophthora sp.

Foot rots of Pepper and betel vine.

Capsule rot of several crops.

Effective against silver leaf on plum, peach & nectarine

Dutch elm disease on elm's honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) on a range of tree species

Botrytis caused by Botrytis cinerea

Effective against rots on a wide range of crops, caused by fusarium, Rhizoctonia, and pythium, and sclerotium forming pathogens such as Sclerotinia & Sclerotium

Recommended Crops

Trichoderma viride is used in protecting crops such as cauliflower, cotton, tobacco, soybean, sugarcane, sugarbeet, eggplant, red gram, Bengal gram, banana, tomato, chillies, potato, citrus, onion, groundnut, peas, sunflower, brinjal, coffee, tea, ginger, turmeric, pepper, betel vine, cardamom.

Precautions & Compatibility Data


Do not use chemical fungicide after application of Trichoderma viride for 4-5 days.


It is compatible with Organic manure. It can be applied to seeds treated with metalaxyl or thiram but not mercurials. It can be mixed with chemical fungicides as tank mix. It is compatible with biofertilizers like Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Bacillus Subtilis and Phosphobacteria.
The product is also available under the Trade name Tricopar-V produced by Exotic Naturals.
Trichoderma viride is also helpful in treatment of efffluents. The dyes and chemical industries have Malachite Green as one of the effluents, which is harmful for the aquatic life. However, with introduction of trichoderma viride, it was observed that the dye was consumed by the fungus and that the dye can be separated, thus helping in the treatment of effluents.

Biopesticides: Challenges

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The indiscriminate use and the negative impact of pesticides have made scientists to search for eco-friendly alternative for the management of pests for healthy and safer environment and to prevent the hazard to man and livestock. The essence of the global plant protection research of this era is to confront the twin challenges of urgent need to increase agricultural yields yet to conserve or improve the natural resources for the future.

This search has ended in economically viable and environmentally safer alternative, the biological control. This technology either standing alone or as a component of integrated pest management has attracted increasing interest, partly in order to reduce dependence upon pesticides. The success of biological control is influenced by the efficiency, virulence, compatibility and mass production of the bioagents. In turn, the success of mass production and marketing mainly depends on cost effectiveness and viability of the bioagents. In view of this, the mass production of the fungal and bacterial antagonist, Tirchoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorscens on various cheaper and easily available raw materials was done.

How to remove Dandruff

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Dandruff is the common skin problem that we face in our daily life. With dandruff your hairs loose their beauty and can even become a nightmare for you. Healthy hairs make you attractive while hairs with dandruff can spoil your personality. So be cautious about your looks and get rid of unwanted ‘flakes’ – get rid of dandruff.

Dandruff is also considered to be fungal infection of the scalp. This condition may recur, if not taken proper care. The normal shampoos contain just soaping and cleansing agents. However, there are many medicated shampoos, which do have Ketoconazole as the active ingredient and sodium lauryl sulphate as the emulsifier and some artificial foaming agents. Also note that all teh chemical compounds belonging to the class of Azoles have significant antifungal effects. However, these chemicals do have potential side-effects as well.

Hence, herbal products or natural product extracts or home remedies are considered to be better than the corresponding synthetic chemicals. The synthetic chemicals, though they are advertised to be safer and prepared from safer chemicals, they are still not safer even for topical applications as the research of these substances with the bodily functions and their interactions with food are not much established.

What are these dandruffs?
Dandruffs are nothing but flakes. In general, there are two types of dandruffs – dry and oily. White flakes and itching effects on the scalp is the result of dry dandruff. Oily dandruff, on the other hand, will make your hair sticky with yellow flakes. In worst case, a bad smell may come from your dandruff-affected hair.

There are several reasons behind the dandruff. These are: •
Poor diet
Excessive tension and stress
Infected scalp
Hormonal imbalances
Dry weatherPollution
Too much use of different hair cosmetics without proper guidance of a skin specialist or a beautician

It has been found that adults and adolescents are affected by dandruff more than children. This is due to the disturbance of androgen hormone and daily tension.

Get rid of dandruff
Using anti-dandruff shampoo while washing your hair is the easiest way to make your hair dandruff free. But regular use of shampoo, without taking the guidance of a hair/skin specialist can harm the original beauty of your hair. Therefore, if you are caught by dandruff, first go to a skin specialist to identify the root of the problem.

Proper diet takes a great role to remove dandruff. Taking more animal fat and unsaturated vegetable oils can harm your scalp. For that you may need to sacrifice some of your favorite dishes. Get a diet chart from a skin specialist and make sure you are not consuming chocolate, iodized salt, and nuts and foods, which are high in calories.

Balanced intake of Vitamin A, E and B Complex is important for long and healthy hair. Include green vegetables, chicken, fish and milk in your diet chart, and you will get these vitamins in proper quantity. Drink sufficient water, since it takes good care of your skin.

Dandruff is the dead cell of our scalp and this happens due to the disturbance of blood circulation in the scalp. Go for ‘Yoga’ therapy or massage, for it will help circulating blood in the scalp. It is also important to brush your hair gently - on a regular basis.

Researches have found that use of herbal shampoo on every other day is very effective to reduce oily dandruff. Like oily dandruff, dry dandruff also needs extensive care. To remove them massage your hair with the oil prescribed by the skin specialist. Move your fingertips gently on the scalp and leave for few minutes before washing your hair.

In this fast moving world it may not be possible get hair therapy in every week. Time is a big factor for busy people who are suffering form dandruff. Some cosmetic treatments, which can be done at home, can work like magic for them. Even others can also try these to make their hair attractive and dandruff free.

If you are suffering from oily flakes, rinse your hair with vinegar. For this, you have to follow some easy steps:•
Fill a mug with fresh water
Mix two tablespoons of malt Vinegar in it
Use shampoo in your hair that is prescribed by a skin specialist
Rinse your hair with Vinegar mixed water
Dry your hair with a clean towel

On the other hand, if you are suffering from dry and white flakes, use oil massage. Following are the steps to take oil massage:
Make a mixture of hot Castor oil (1 teaspoon), Coconut oil (1 teaspoon) and Mole oil (1 teaspoon)• Massage gently with the mixture on your scalp
Keep the hair for about 30 minutes
Wash your hair with a prescribed shampoo
Dry your hair with a clean towel.

You can also try this method of making your hair dandruff-free and lustrous,
Collect fine sand from the sea-shore.
Put it in a bucket of water.
Wash your hairs along with the water of the pure sand.
While scrubbing softly, the fine sand also helps in removing the dandruff.
Here, the chemicals that are involved in helping to remove dandruff are the inorganic chemicals in the fine sand.

Dexamethasone: Latest drug for Tuberculosis

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Dexamethasone is believed to be the latest drug found to be highly effective in curing Tuberculosis.

What is dexamethasone?
Dexamethasone is in a class of drugs called steroids. Dexamethasone reduces swelling and decreases the body's immune response.

Dexamethasone is used to treat many different conditions. It is used to treat endocrine (hormonal) disorders when the body does not produce enough of its own steroids. It is also used to treat many immune and allergic disorders, such as arthritis, lupus, severe psoriasis, severe asthma, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease.

Dexamethasone may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.
What is the most important information I should know about dexamethasone?Do not stop taking dexamethasone suddenly if you have been taking it for a few weeks. You may need a gradual reduction in dosage before you stop taking this medication. Take dexamethasone with food or milk to lessen stomach upset.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking dexamethasone?Do not take dexamethasone if you have a serious bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Dexamethasone weakens the body's immune response and thus its ability to fight infection.

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor if you have kidney disease, liver disease, high blood pressure or heart disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, or stomach ulcers, hypothyroidism, a psychiatric condition, osteoporosis, myasthenia gravis, diabetes mellitus, or any other medical conditions.

Herbs to increase Sperm Count

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Sperm count is the important factor in the male sexuality because adequate sperms are require by men to make the women pregnant. Inadequate sperm count means that man is impotent. Scarcity of Sperms makes the man infertile and he is not able to bore a child through the sexual intercourse. Sperms are the important part of the male reproductive system because as the man reaches the orgasm he sprinkles out the sperms in the female reproductive system, which fuses egg cells and the fertilization takes place. Without sperms no man is able of sexual reproduction. So, it is very necessary for every man to keep his sperm count high to produce offspring.

Many medications are available to increase the sperm count, but it is sad to know that only few works. Herbal medications are the one that has showed very good results to increase sperm count in men. So, here is the list of the herbs to increase the sperm count—

1. Jeevanti (Leptadenia reticulata)
Jeevanti is the herb that increases the sperm count and motility. Many childless couples are being able to conceive. It promotes spermatogenesis by improving the testicular, seminal vesicle and epididymal functions.

2. Kapikacchu (Mucuna pruriens)
Kapikacchu is the member of Fabaceae family that works to improve the vitality in men. It helps in controlling the oxidative damage to sperms. It increases sperm count and testosterone levels in male. The quantity of mature sperms is maintained by the Kapikacca.

3. Suvarnavang (Mosaic gold)
Suvarnavang increases the sperm count in men. The men who are unable to produce offspring should take Suvarnavang daily for about 3 months, this will make them potent. It is also useful in permatorrhoea, premature ejaculation, impotency, and in oliguria.

4. Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris)
Gokshura is a natural herbal alternative to synthetic anabolic hormones without any clinically proven toxic effects. Gokshura increases the sperm quality and count of mature sperms. It also helps to enhance the sexual stamina in men. Men can consume Gokshura capsules twice in a day and in 3 weeks men can see the improvement in their ejaculation.

5. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)
Ashwagandha is the very good aphrodisiac that also stimulates the production of the testosterone in men leading to more sperm production. Ashwagandha has got the sex-enhancing properties. Even the quantity of sperm ejaculation is increased with regular intake of Ashwagandha. It can also be used to cure erection problems.

6. Vanya Kahu (Lactuca scariola)
Vanya Kahu stimulates the sex drive in men and improves the sperm quality. It when taken for about a week can resolve any of the sex problems caused by inadequate blood supply. Vanya Kahu increases the sexual stamina. The sperm motility is also improved by taking Vanya Kahu.

7. Salabmisri (Orchis mascula)
It is an orchid with the sex enhancing powers. The sperm count of the men can be doubled with the intake of this plant. It is the very effective treatment for improving sperm count.

8. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens)
A natural steroid that tones and strengthens the reproductive system. This herb has the added benefit of increasing libido, a consequence that can be helpful when trying to conceive. Sperm count is increased considerably by the intake of it.

9. Raspberry Leaf (Rubus idaeus)
Raspberry leaf increases the lifespan of sperms and prevents fertile sperms from dieing. This is probably the most popular of all fertility herbs. It is very high in calcium that promotes the production of sperms. With the regular intake of this herb you can certainly overcome any sperm related problems.

10. Nettle Leaves (Urtica dioica)
It increases the testosterone levels in the men and induces the production of the sperms. This herb maintain the health of sperms. Impotent men are advised to eat the nettle leaves regularly for about month and then they can make a woman pregnant as there sperm count is increased.
So, do use these herbs to increase your sperm count and be a potent human. These herbs can best be taken under the guidance of the herbal doctor.

Custard Apple to cure Tuberculosis

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Note: DOT therapy and other medications available are steroidal drugs and have a serious impact on a patients liver. One has to monitor SGPT and SGOT counts every now and then, which makes the patients life more stressful. It is better to keep the person cheeerful, active and providing food rich in nutrients, especially in Calcium, Silica and Proteins and Vitamins.

The best and easiest therapy available with ZERO SIDE-EFFECTS is Custard apple or Sugar Apple (Annona aquamosa) which plays a very important role in mainitaining the level of organic Calcium in the body. If Custard apple is not available, an ayurvedic decoction called as Sitaphal Aasav can be obtained either online or from any Indian Ayurvedic Stores.

Sitaphal Aasav can also be prepared at home. It is ver easy and is also good if a person is not in a state to have food orally or has dislikeness towards the fruit.

Remove the pulp covering the seeda of the Custard Apple. For 100 gm of the pulp add 100 gm raisins and 25 gm jaggery(optional) and boil in 100 ml water. Allow it to thicken. When it becomes a syrupy liquid, remove from the flame. Cool and condense. The syrup can be taken as much as a person needs. The remaining pulp can also be eaten.

This will not provide instantaneous cure. However, it has no adverse effect on any vital organ of the body.

Herbs to cure Tuberculosis: Natural healing

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Tuberculosis, if not properly managed and treated, can be immediately fatal. We are thus in no position to advise you to forego conventional medical treatment.

Note: DOT therapy and other medications available are steroidal drugs and have a serious impact on a patients liver. One has to monitor SGPT and SGOT counts every now and then, which makes the patients life more stressful. It is better to keep the person cheeerful, active and providing food rich in nutrients, especially in Calcium, Silica and Proteins and Vitamins.

The best and easiest therapy available with ZERO SIDE-EFFECTS is Custard apple or Sugar Apple (Annona aquamosa) which plays a very important role in mainitaining the level of organic Calcium in the body. If Custard apple is not available, an ayurvedic decoction called as Sitaphal Aasav can be obtained either online or from any Indian Ayurvedic Stores.

Having said that, do note that natural health and healing does not advocate the use of chemical drugs. There are almost always safer, natural and effective natural solutions available. Great natural healers, past and present, have used totally natural methods to treat and cure tuberculosis.

The discussion in this article should be taken as suggestions in the treatment of tuberculosis. Whether or not to undergo conventional treatment is a matter of personal choice. The suggestions on this page can be used to supplement conventional treatment, if one chooses to undergo it.

And if you believe that there is a totally natural cure for tuberculosis, and choose to only use a totally natural treatment for tuberculosis, then please crank up the intensity. Do your utmost to boost your immune system, as well as use liberal amounts of antibiotic herbs, such as and especially garlic.

A strong and healthy immune system, with the help of potent herbs, will crush any infection in the body.

Useful Tuberculosis Home Remedies and Natural Aids
The most crucial, and extremely important, component of using a natural treatment of tuberculosis is to build the immune system and general immunity of the patient. It is also important to stop the disease from spreading and developing further.

Based on the above, several natural treatment modalities and remedies have been developed in an attempt to treat and reduce some of the symptoms of tuberculosis and also to cure the disease. These treatment mechanisms can be followed along with the treatment protocol that is advised by physicians.

Some of the modalities of natural treatment for tuberculosis are discussed below.
One of the best ways to fight the tuberculosis bacteria is to expose the patient to sunlight. Sunlight and ultraviolet light have the ability to kill the disease-causing bacteria which is extremely important to stop the disease from developing and spreading further.
Sunlight, of course, also benefits health in many other ways, including boosting the immune system. It is thus an integral part of any natural treatment for tuberculosis.
Building the immune system entails living well and eating well. Our list of good health habits would provide a good foundation.

Herbal Aids Helping in Treatment for Tuberculosis

The scientific name of barberry is Berberis vulgaris.
These berries are found to be extremely effective in resolving tuberculosis symptoms when administered along with the conventional treatment modalities. Administering this treatment is fairly simple - one can include 10 to 15 barberry berries in the patients’ diet on a daily basis.
Barberries contain berberine, which has bactericidal properties and aid in killing the tuberculosis-causing bacteria, thus helping to boost the overall treatment for tuberculosis.

Orange Juice
A glass of freshly-squeezed orange juice with a pinch of salt, a spoonful of honey, and two-three mint leaves, should be mixed and given to the patient. The saline effect in the lungs will reduce expectoration and protect the patient from other secondary infections.
Vitamin C contained in orange juice boosts the immune system and also helps fight the disease-causing bacteria, thus aiding the the treatment for tuberculosis.

The scientific name of horsetail is Equisetum arvense.
Tuberculosis results in reduction in silica content in the bones. Silica helps develop one’s resistance to diseases and hence it is important to restore silica levels in bones.
In order to replenish silica levels, tuberculosis patients can be administered a spoonful of horsetail juice on a daily basis. Horsetail products are available as extracts, powder, capsules, etc, and depending on the chosen product, the dosage can be adequately administered.

Garlic has been found to be effective in treating tuberculosis. In fact, garlic is an amazing antimicrobial herb which works effectively against microbes, harmful organisms, bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses.
This makes garlic a critical part of any tuberculosis home remedy or natural treatment for tuberculosis.
An ideal way to go about preparing the medication would be to boil 30 garlic cloves in 150 ml of milk mixed in 50 ml of water. This entire portion should be boiled until it condenses to 50 ml of concentrated garlic syrup. After filtering, the concentrated syrup free from solid substances should be administered to the patient twice daily.
Do note that a good quality garlic bulb should have 10 to 12 large, white cloves. Garlic bulbs with many small or yellowish cloves are probably of inferior quality. For best effect, use garlic that is organic and raw.

Herbal Tea
Licorice root tea prepared with only licorice roots or with other herbs like sage and chamomile in equal quantities can prove very effective in soothing throat pain and providing relief from persistent coughing in patients suffering from tuberculosis. All these herbs are effective in treating respiratory conditions.

Another useful supplement in a treatment for tuberculosis is propolis, which has also been found to be extremely effective in treating pulmonary tuberculosis.
Propolis is a substance used by honeybees to coat their hives in order to keep the hive warm and to prevent possible attacks from other animals and insects. It has been established that alcohol extracts of propolis is found to be rich in bactericidal material which helps kill tuberculosis-causing bacteria.
Another important feature of propolis is its ability to act as a nonspecific immunostimulator. It was found that when propolis was included in the form of alcohol solution to an immunizing agent, it showed marked improvement in immune response. Propolis was effective in increasing the immunity building properties of immunizing agents. This property is also extremely useful in treating patients with tuberculosis.

Mint Juice
Mint is another useful supplement in a treatment for tuberculosis.
A glass of fresh mint juice mixed with 150 ml of carrot juice, two spoons of honey and malt vinegar is found to be very beneficial to patients suffering from tuberculosis.
The juice can be administered thrice everyday since it dissolves the sputum, cleanses and nourishes the lungs, develops immunity thereby resisting further infection, and acts as a detoxifying agent and cleanses the body of all the powerful anti-tuberculosis drug side effects.

Pineapple Juice
Pineapple juice is considered to be one of the best treatment remedies for patients suffering from tuberculosis. Pineapple juice with freshly ground pepper and a dash of salt and honey can be administered to patients once everyday. This is found to be extremely helpful in dissolving mucus.

American ginseng
It has been suggested that, after consulting a pediatrician or physician, children suffering from tuberculosis can be administered American ginseng three times a day.
Ginseng contains minerals and nutrients that help build immunity and increase the body’s resistance to other infections and diseases.

Vitamin Supplements
An effective and serious method of building immunity in patients suffering from tuberculosis is to administer vitamin supplements. This is another potentially very useful part of a treatment for tuberculosis.
Vitamin supplements also have a bactericidal effect which is important for TB patients. Recommended vitamin supplements include vitamin C, B vitamins, including vitamin B6, vitamin A, and beta carotenes. These supplements should be continued till the patient is disease-free to effectively replenish lost energy resources in the body.

Natural Treatment for Tuberculosis – Conclusion
In addition to all of the above, persons suffering from tuberculosis need to get a lot of exposure to sunshine, nutritious food, some exercise, and should drink plenty of water to help in the detoxification process.

Our discussion on overall good health habits should be very useful.

Tuberculosis is curable and one needs to remember that at all times. With proper care and management, the disease can be completely cured and the person can go back to leading a normal life.

How to Read UN Packaging Codes

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The basis of all national and international regulations for the safe transport of dangerous goods are the Recommendations ("Specification") of the "UN Committee of Experts" as published in "The Orange Book".

There are five different (relevant) Modal Authorities who each publish their own regulation manuals in which they follow "The Orange Book".

These are the:
The Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air published by the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO).

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) published by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).

The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) published by The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

The International Agreement for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID) published by The Intergovermental Organisation for International Carriage by Rail (OTIF).

The Hazardous Materials Regulations (Title 49 CFR Parts 100-185) published by The Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, US DOT.

What are Dangerous Goods?

Goods which are classified as dangerous for transport range from those which are highly dangerous (such as explosives and fuming acids) to everyday products such as paints, solvents and pesticides found in the home and at work. Dangerous goods, which can also be called "Hazardous Materials" (mainly in the US), may be substances or products. The transport of such goods is regulated to ensure the safety of life, of the ship, aircraft or vehicle, and of other goods (such as foodstuffs) being transported. For example, solvents must be in sealed airtight containers otherwise the fumes could affect people in the close vicinity. Other substances may not be harmful unless they come into contact with fire or water, but for safety purposes these are also classified as dangerous goods.

When transporting "Hazardous Materials", in most cases, the packaging has to be certified to UN standards. The international agreements for the carriage of dangerous goods require packaging to be of a design-type certified by a national competent authority. This involves testing the packaging against the appropriate UN specification to ensure its suitability for the carriage of certain dangerous goods. Such packaging is often referred to as "type-approved", "UN Approved" or "UN certified" and marked in a particular way, prefixed by the UN logo and followed by codes.

The UN Marking System

The U.N. marking system indicates several characteristics of the packaging, as well as information on the test levels the packaging has successfully passed. Because these test levels are related to the hazard level and physical and chemical characteristics of the substance to be filled, the markings also indicate some of the properties of the materials that may be packed in each container.

A sample UN Marking:
1H2 / Y1.8 / 100 / 08 / F / OA30900

UN The United Nations Coding System

Type of Container
1. Drums/Pails
2. Barrels
3. Jerricans
4. Boxes
5. Bags
6. Composite Packagings

Material of Construction
A. Steel
B. Aluminum
C. Wood
D. Fibre
E. Plastic

Category Within Type
1. Closedhead
2. Openhead

Packaging Group for which container was tested
X. for Packaging Group I, II, III
Y. for Packaging Group II and III
Z. for Packaging Group III
Packaging Group I: Great Danger - high hazard levelPackaging Group II: Medium Danger - medium hazard levelPackaging Group III: Minor Danger - low hazard level

Density or specific gravity of material packedORFor packaging intended for Solids (powders, pills, capsules, tablets) or that have inner packaging, this marking will indicate the maximum gross mass (weight) in kilograms.

Hydraulic pressure in kilo-pascal (kPa)ORFor packaging intended for Solids or that have inner packaging, an "S" in upper case will follow the gross mass.

Current year

Country where container was manufactured

Code for manufacturing plant

Part-Time Courses for Regulatory Affairs, Quality control and Quality Assurance in Mumbai

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What is Regulatory Affairs?
Regulatory Affairs (RA) is an upcoming profession within the biomedical / health products sector. RA profession at its heart is all about Collecting, Analyzing and Communicating the Risks and Benefits of health care products to regulatory agencies and public all over the world.

In an organization their prime responsibilities involves preparation and presentation of registration documents to regulatory agencies and carry out all following discussion to obtain and maintain marketing authorization (MA) for the products concerned.

They need to keep a track on ever changing legislation in all countries where the companies is looking to market their product.

RA profession is broader than registration of products, they advise companies both strategically and technically at the highest level. Their role begins right from development of a product to making, marketing and post marketing. Their advice at all stages both in terms of legal and technical requirements and restrains help companies save a lot of time and money in developing the product and marketing the same.

They have a major contribution in company’s success both Commercially and Scientifically.

Careers in Regulatory Affairs:-
Pharma is a highly regulated industry the world over and professionals, who can manage regulatory affairs, are in high demand.

Selling drugs is not like selling anything else, when we sell drugs we need to be confident that
They do what they claim to do They have been through a tough testing process to get from the lab to the market The side effects are well documented.

This is where regulatory affairs come in.

“Regulatory Affairs Professional is the key link to distributing your drugs to world region.”

The Indian Pharmaceutical industry is one of the fastest growing industry in India, with a CAGR of over 13 % in last 5 years and it is expected to grow at a higher rate in coming 10 years. It is valued at $ 8.0 billion approximately and ranks 4th in terms of volume and 13th in terms of value globally.

With such a high growth rate and rapid globalization there is a substantial need for highly trained professionals ready to perform the work required within this specialized industrial sector who will keep updates with regulatory law, policies and procedures for one or more product lines as well as maintain an understanding of the scientific and technical background of new products.
The increasing graph of the global companies’ setup in India demands the trained and skilled professional on a Handsome Salary, looking back for past few years rise in salary is multiplying.
There is a widening gap of rising demand and too few skilled human resource, this has seen a 50 % zoom on average in salaries for skilled manpower specifically in CRO sector alone. On an average there has been over 30% rises in salaries in Pharmaceutical Sector.

Research & Development activity in the Pharma sector is seeing a rapid growth and this growth is only poised to increase the need for skilled manpower and higher pay scale to retain the skilled.

What you will need to become a RA professional :-
A good background knowledge of the pharmaceuticals and medical environment A meticulous approach to work.Attention to detail.

Academic Qualification in Regulatory Affairs
You can expect to work in a multidisciplinary workplace where scientists and medics will come from very different backgrounds. Excellent written and verbal communication skills are a must as is the ability to work effectively under pressure.

It is not easy for any Science Graduate to get a good salary hike in the pharmaceutical/chemical industry without having the appropriate qualification/knowledge. However, when a person spends at least 2-3 years in the same field, he/she can master the job. However, to be a project leader or to get into the higher ranks of the organization, a person needs to be aaware of the changing trends of the industry. This is where Regulatory Affairs plays an important role. With environmental issues cropping up each day and the stringent measures adopted by Environmental Protection agencies, FAO and the WHO and other NGOs, it is very important for an organization to have an individual who can flexibly handle and understand all the critical procedures of the company and can help in the amooth functioning of the company.
For all Life Science Graduates or Basic Science Graduates working in Pharmaceuticals /Agrochemicals companies, can enhance their knowledge and have an edge over your peers by having any additional Diploma or Certificate courses.

Some of the institutes offering courses on the same lines through Part-time for working professionals or Through distance Education are:
Institute of Pharmaceutical Management - (IPM), Dombivli.
Global Institute of Regulatory Affairs, Pune.
Bioinformatics Institute of India, Noida.

UN Packing Group for Pesticides/Agrochemicals

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Note: Packing Group/Class for all pesticides/ fungicides/ herbicides/ weedicides/ insecticides (Agrochemicals) varies with Different formulations.
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